3. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

Teaching With Intention
Christy G. Keeler

Abstract

This chapter introduces instructional design principles for the purposes of providing online teachers with justifications for course designs and offering guidance to prospective course developers. It begins with a generalized perspective of instructional design and differentiates between traditional and online instructional design issues. It also outlines elements necessary when designing online courses from both macro- and micro-levels and argues the importance of developing a new perspective of instructional design as it relates to the unique and growing field of K-12 online education.

Discussion Questions

1. What communication and instructional design strategies does the author say are needed more in K-12 online courses than in higher education courses?

2. As district-led programs grow, teacher-designed courses are likely to remain common. What are some ways that a school district on a budget can use design practices discussed in the chapter to ensure a basic level of design quality in courses developed primarily by teachers?

3. What are four ways the author says designers can improve the accessibility of their course content?

4. The author notes the importance of learning standards and assessments in course design. Backwards design, which moves from standards to assessment before addressing learning content, is a popular design model these days. Read the views of Kelting-Gibson (2005) and Cho and Trent (2005) about backwards design. What are its advantages and disadvantages as a design approach?

5. The author notes emerging roles for embedded assessment in games and simulations. What challenges did Dede (2013) and his colleagues encounter in embedding assessments of learner understanding into online middle school science simulations? What are some design strategies they used to obtain diagnostic feedback?

Additional Resources

Barbour, M. K., Morrison, J., & Adelstein, D. (2014). The forgotten teachers in K-12 online learning: Examining the perceptions of teachers who develop K-12 online courses. International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design, 4(3), 18-33. Retrieved from
http://digitalcommons.sacredheart.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1203&context=ced_fac

Cho, J., & Trent, A. (2005, Fall-Winter). "Backward" curriculum design and assessment: What goes around comes around, or haven't we seen this before? Taboo: The Journal of Culture and Education, Fall-Winter, 105-122. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795704.pdf

Dede, C. (2013). Opportunities and challenges in embedding diagnostic assessments into immersive interfaces. Educational Designer. 2(6). Retrieved from
http://www.educationaldesigner.org/ed/volume2/issue6/article21

Hillen, S. A., & Landis, M. (2014). Two perspectives on e-learning design: A synopsis of a U.S. and a European analysis. IRRODL, 15(4).
Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1783/3055

Israel, M., Marino, M., Delisio, L., & Serianni, B. (2014). Supporting content learning through technology for K-12 students with disabilities. CEEDAR, University of Florida. Retrieved from http://ceedar.education.ufl.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/IC-10_FINAL_09-10-14.pdf

Kelting-Gibson, L. M. (2005). Comparison of curriculum development practices. Educational Research Quarterly, 29(1) 26-36. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ718116.pdf

McGee, P., & Reis, A. (2012, June). Blended course design: A synthesis of best practices. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 16(4), 7-22.
Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ982678.pdf

Meylani, R., Bitter, G., & Legacy, J. (2015, January). Desirable characteristics of an ideal online learning environment. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 5(1), 203-216. Retrieved from http://mcser.org/journal/index.php/jesr/article/download/5613/5416

Vick, M. (2012). Analyzing breadth and depth of a virtual charter school’s science curriculum. US-China Education Review A 2, 149-163.
(ERIC ED No. ED532171)
Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532171.pdf

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